Familial Periodic Paralyses
What are Familial Periodic Paralyses?
Familial periodic paralyses are a group of inherited neurological disorders caused by mutations in genes that regulate sodium and calcium channels in nerve cells. They are characterised by episodes in which the affected muscles become slack, weak, and unable to contract. Between attacks, the affected muscles usually work as normal.
The two most common types of periodic paralyses are:
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is characterised by a fall in potassium levels in the blood. In individuals with this mutation attacks often begin in adolescence and are triggered by strenuous exercise or high carbohydrate meals. Weakness may be mild and limited to certain muscle groups, or more severe and affect the arms and legs. Attacks may last for a few hours or persist for several days. Some patients may develop chronic muscle weakness later in life.
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is characterised by a rise in potassium levels in the blood. Attacks often begin in infancy or early childhood and are precipitated by rest after exercise or by fasting. Attacks are usually shorter, more frequent, and less severe than the hypokalemic form. Muscle spasms are common.