What is Reye's Syndrome?
Reye's syndrome is primarily a children's disease, although it can occur at any age. It affects all organs of the body but is most harmful to the brain and the liver--causing an acute increase of pressure within the brain and, often, massive accumulations of fat in the liver and other organs.
Reye's syndrome is defined as a two-phase illness because it generally occurs in conjunction with a previous viral infection, such as the flu or chicken pox.
The disorder commonly occurs during recovery from a viral infection, although it can also develop 3 to 5 days after the onset of the viral illness.
Reye's syndrome is often misdiagnosed as encephalitis, meningitis, diabetes, drug overdose, poisoning, sudden infant death syndrome, or psychiatric illness.
Symptoms of Reye's Syndrome
Symptoms of Reye's syndrome include persistent or recurrent vomiting, listlessness, personality changes such as irritability or combativeness, disorientation or confusion, delirium, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. If these symptoms are present during or soon after a viral illness, medical attention should be sought immediately.
The symptoms of Reye's syndrome in infants do not follow a typical pattern; for example, vomiting does not always occur.
Cause of Reye's Syndrome
The cause of Reye's syndrome remains a mystery. However studies have shown that using aspirin or salicylate-containing medications to treat viral illnesses increases the risk of developing Reye's syndrome.
Aspirin should not be given to children under 16 years old.
A physician should be consulted before giving a child any aspirin or anti-nausea medicines during a viral illness, which can mask the symptoms of Reye's syndrome.
Is there any treatment?
There is no cure for Reye's syndrome.
Successful management, which depends on early diagnosis, is primarily aimed at protecting the brain against irreversible damage by reducing brain swelling, reversing the metabolic injury, preventing complications in the lungs, and anticipating cardiac arrest.
It has been learned that several inborn errors of metabolism mimic Reye's syndrome in that the first manifestation of these errors may be an encephalopathy with liver dysfunction. These disorders must be considered in all suspected cases of Reye's syndrome.
Some evidence suggests that treatment in the end stages of Reye's syndrome with hypertonic IV glucose solutions may prevent progression of the syndrome.
What is the prognosis?
Recovery from Reye's syndrome is directly related to the severity of the swelling of the brain. Some people recover completely, while others may sustain varying degrees of brain damage.
Those cases in which the disorder progresses rapidly and the patient lapses into a coma have a poorer prognosis than those with a less severe course.
Statistics indicate that when Reye's syndrome is diagnosed and treated in its early stages, chances of recovery are excellent.
When diagnosis and treatment are delayed, the chances for successful recovery and survival are severely reduced.
Unless Reye's syndrome is diagnosed and treated successfully, death is common, often within a few days.